Azeemi - Surge Power Equation: A Simple Tool for Simulation and Graphical Comparison of Continuous / Surge Advance Rates


  • Sajid Mahmood COE in Water Resources Engineering, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Zeyneb Kılıç Adiyaman University, Engineering Faculty, Adıyaman, Türkiye
  • Mudassar Iqbal COE in Water Resources Engineering, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Waqas Hussan University of Agriculture, DI Khan, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Usman PMAS Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
  • Sarfraz Hashim MNS University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan
  • Tahir Iqbal PMAS Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
  • Hafiz Abdur Rehman COE in Water Resources Engineering, Lahore, Pakistan



Surge irrigation, advance rate, power equation, furrow


Intermittent water application merits has proven completion of the advanced phase in lesser time in furrows, compared with conventional water application. Power equation was applied to model advance rates during surge irrigation, using two-point technique. A simple procedure was developed by modifying the power equation for simulating later surges advance data from the first surge, by introducing time-reduction factors. The developed equation was further generalized to combine the surge advance rate data, for comparing graphically with the continuous advance rate during an irrigation event. This equation has been named ‘Azeemi-surge Power Equation (ASPE). Extensive and reliable field datas were collected from different field experimental stations and applied to verify the equation and developed procedure. From the results of this experimental study, it was concluded that the surging phenomena substantially increased the water movement in the furrows by causing reduction in the advance time during different irrigation events. Further, the results revealed that the advance data collected during irrigation events and simulated by the modified power equation (MPE) matched closely. It was also noted that the ‘ASPE’ equation helps in developing single advance curve from the surges applied during surge irrigation to compare surges vs.continuous advance rates in irrigated furrows graphically


Bishop AA, Walker WA, Allen NL, Poole GJ. Furrow advance rates under surge flow systems. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage 1981; 107(3): 257-264.

Podmore TH, Duke HR. Field evaluation of surge irrigation. ASAE paper 1982; No.82-2102.

Goldhamer DA, Aleemi MH, Phene RC. Surge vs Continuous flow irrigation. California Agriculture 1987; 41(9/10): 29-32.

Izuno FT, Podmore TH. Kinematic wave model for surge irrigation research in furrows. Transactions 1985; 28(4): 1145-1150.

Yonts CD, Eisenhauer DE, Fekersillassie D. Impact of surge irrigation on furrow water advance. ASAE Transactions 1996; 39(3): 973-979.

Esfandiari M, Maheshwari B.L. Field evaluation of furrow irrigation models. Journal Agricultural Engineering Research 2001; 79 (4): 459-479.

Gudissa HD, Edossa, DC. Evaluation of surge and cutback flow furrow irrigation systems for Pepper (Capsicum annuum) production. Irrigation and Drainage 2014; 63(4): 463-473.

Wood CW, Krutz LJ, Falconer L, Pringle III HC, Orlowski JM, Bryant CJ, Atwill RL, Pickelmann DM. Surge irrigation reduces irrigation requirements for soybean on smectitic clay-textured soils. Crop Forage Turfgrass Management 2017; 3(1): 1-6.

Nazemi AH, Parandin MA, Sadraddini AA, Ghamarnia H. Effects of surge irrigation on water use efficiency and water productivity of maize in Islamabad-Gharb Area. Journal of Water Research in Agriculture 2019; 353-369.

Trout TJ. Surface seal influence on surge flow furrow infiltration. ASAE Transactions 1990; 33(5): 1583-1586.

Kemper WD, Roseneau RC, Nelson S. Gas displacement and aggregate stability of soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Journal 1985; 49: 25–28.

Mahmood S, Khan MA, Latif M, Sial JK. Application of surge irrigation on borders for water saving and wheat production: First year study results. Italian Journal of Agronomy 2003; 7: 49-55.

Hoffman GJ, Martin. Engineering systems to enhance irrigation performance. Irrigation Science 1993; 14(2): 53-63.

Elliot R.L, Walker WR. Field Evaluation of Furrow Inflitration and Advance Functions. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers 1982; doi: 10.13031/2013.33542.

Blair AW, Smerdon ET. Modeling surge irrigation infiltration. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage 1987; 113(4): 497-515.

Manges HL, Hooker ML, Ortel TW. Variable cycle time effects in surge irrigation. ASAE Paper Abstract 1985; 85-2583.

Kemper WD, Trout TJ, Humpherys AS, Bullock MS. Mechanisms by which surge reduces furrow infiltration rates in a silty loam soil. Transactions 1988; 31(3): 821-829.

Monserrat J, Vilaro J, Casali J, Barragan J. Comparison between continuous and surge flow irrigation in borders and furrows. In: Proc Acta Hortic, Segre Basin 1992., Spain 455-459p

Camacho E, Roldan J, Alcaide M. Comparison between continuous and surge furrow irrigation. Proceedings ICID Fifteenth Congress, 1993. 102:1305-1314

Cahoon J, Eisenhauer D. Inferences of the cycle ratio-time surged flow infiltration function. Irrigation Science1994., 15(4): 173-182.

El-Dine T.G. Field evaluation of surge and continuous flows in furrow irrigation systems. Water Resources Management2000., 14(2): 77-87.

Mahmood S, Sial JK. Effects of tillage depth and cycle ratio on the performance of surge irrigation. Pakistan Journal of Agriculture Sciences 1992; 29(4): 334-338.

Latif M, Ittfaq M. Performance of surge and continuous furrow irrigation. Journal of Rural and Environmental Engineering 1998; 34: 35-42.

Horst MG, Shamutalov SS, Gonçalves JM, Pereira LS. Assessing impacts of surge-flow irrigation on water saving and productivity of cotton. Agricultural Water Management 2007; 87(2): 115-12.

Valipour M.. Increasing irrigation efficiency by management strategies: cutback and surge irrigation. Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science 2013; 8(1): 35-43.

Deshish EI-D, Okacha AM. Increasing the efficiency of surface irrigation by using surge irrigation for cotton production in the delta soils. Menoufia Journal Plant Production 2021; 6: 211-219.

Latif M, Ittfaq M. Prospects of surge flow irrigation in Pakistan. Final Project Report No.Engg. 1994; 12/ETL/90, CEWRE Publication 90.

Rodrigues CMM. Pulsed furrow irrigation evaluation. MSc thesis, Crandfield Institute of Technology, 1989. Silsoe College, Bedford UK.

Trout TJ. Surface seal influence on surge flow furrow infiltration. Transaction 1991; 34: 66–72.

Seymour RM. Air entrapment and consolidation as mechanisms in infiltration with surge irrigation. Ph.D thesis. 1990; Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins.

Jalali-Farahani HR, Duke HR, Heermann DF. Physics of surge irrigation. I. Quantifying soil physical parameters. Transaction 1993; 36: 37–44.

Mahmood S, Sial JK, Ahmad N, Awan QA, Khan MA. Surge vs. continuous irrigation methods. Pakistan Journal of Agriculture Science 1992, 29(4), 334-338.

Mahmood S, Sial JK, Latif M, Nadeem MA. Effects of tillage depth on advance rate for surge irrigation. Journal of Drainage and Reclamation Institute of Pakistan 1995; 7 (1&2): 13-15.

Salem TM, Awwad AH, Khater AE. Effect of leveling and surge irrigation on water rationalization. Journal Soil Science and Agriculture Engineering 2014, 5(12): 1791-1807.




How to Cite

Mahmood, S., Kılıç, Z., Iqbal, M., Hussan, W., Usman, M., Hashim, S., Iqbal, T., & Rehman, H. A. (2023). Azeemi - Surge Power Equation: A Simple Tool for Simulation and Graphical Comparison of Continuous / Surge Advance Rates. ICONTECH INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL, 7(2), 1–15.