ICONTECH INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL http://icontechjournal.com/index.php/iij <p>ICONTECH INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL is open access, peer-reviewed, international indexed and refereed journal published by IEDSR ASSOCIATION. Its main objective is to provide an intellectual platform for the international scholars. It aims to promote scientific studies in science and technology and become the leading journal in the relevant field. </p> Icontech Scientific Studies Society en-US ICONTECH INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL 2717-7270 Azeemi - Surge Power Equation: A Simple Tool for Simulation and Graphical Comparison of Continuous / Surge Advance Rates http://icontechjournal.com/index.php/iij/article/view/273 <p>Intermittent water application merits has proven completion of the advanced phase in lesser time in furrows, compared with conventional water application. Power equation was applied to model advance rates during surge irrigation, using two-point technique. A simple procedure was developed by modifying the power equation for simulating later surges advance data from the first surge, by introducing time-reduction factors. The developed equation was further generalized to combine the surge advance rate data, for comparing graphically with the continuous advance rate during an irrigation event. This equation has been named ‘Azeemi-surge Power Equation (ASPE). Extensive and reliable field datas were collected from different field experimental stations and applied to verify the equation and developed procedure. From the results of this experimental study, it was concluded that the surging phenomena substantially increased the water movement in the furrows by causing reduction in the advance time during different irrigation events. Further, the results revealed that the advance data collected during irrigation events and simulated by the modified power equation (MPE) matched closely. It was also noted that the ‘ASPE’ equation helps in developing single advance curve from the surges applied during surge irrigation to compare surges vs.continuous advance rates in irrigated furrows graphically</p> Sajid Mahmood Zeyneb Kılıç Mudassar Iqbal Waqas Hussan Muhammad Usman Sarfraz Hashim Tahir Iqbal Hafiz Abdur Rehman Copyright (c) 2023 ICONTECH INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 7 2 1 15 10.5281/zenodo.8130613 Design of SRR-Loaded Patch Antenna for 5G Communications and Estimation of Antenna Substrate Materials http://icontechjournal.com/index.php/iij/article/view/275 <p class="MDPI17abstract" style="margin-left: 0cm;"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 12.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif;">A microstrip patch antenna loaded with Split Ring Resonator is proposed for 5G Communication systems. The overall dimension of the antenna is 50 mm x 40 mm x 1.6 mm. The designed antenna operates in n77, n78, and n79 bands of the fifth generation (5G) Communication system. The parameters of Return Loss, VSWR, Radiation Pattern and radiation efficiency are investigated in the sub 6 GHz range. The proposed antenna is fabricated and analyzed experimentally to verify the simulation results. Additionally, linear regression analysis is used to determine the relative permittivity of the substrate. Different substrate materials with the thickness of 1.6 mm are selected and the antenna is analyzed with these substrate materials. The dataset consists of the real and imaginary parts of the electric and magnetic field components with respect to the spatial coordinates. Coordinates are -40.625≤x≤40.625, -45.5≤y≤45.5, and -20.325≤z≤21.925. A total of 52780 instances are obtained by changing the substrate material. As a result of the linear regression analysis, the mean absolute error (MAE) is found to be 0.0748 and correlation coefficient to be 0.9758. Thus, the dielectric constant of the substrate material could be estimated by the proposed approach without using numerical or analytical models. In summary, multiple linear regression is a useful tool for designing SRR-loaded patch antennas for 5G communications and estimating antenna substrate materials. It allows for predictive modeling, variable selection, interpretability, and flexibility, which can help to optimize the antenna performance and substrate material selection for various 5G communication applications.</span></p> <p> </p> Duygu Nazan Gençoğlan Şule Çolak Copyright (c) 2023 ICONTECH INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 7 2 16 27 10.5281/zenodo.8130710 HBsAg and Anti-HBs Seroprevalence: Results and Evaluation of Three Years http://icontechjournal.com/index.php/iij/article/view/276 <p>HBV infection is a serious public health problem in our country and in the world. Considering that one out of every three people in the world has encountered HBV, this number corresponds to approximately two billion people, and that approximately 300 million of them are active chronic HBV patients, the severity of the situation is understandable. Since most of the HBV seroprevalence studies conducted in our country are performed on blood donors, they may contain errors in terms of sampling technique. Our aim is to bring to the literature a seroprevalence study that eliminates these errors, is reliable and has more than 300 thousand cases.</p> <p>In our study, the results of the patients who applied to primary health care institutions for various reasons between January 1, 2019 and December 31, 2021 and were asked for HBsAg and anti-HBs tests were retrospectively analyzed from the Gaziantep Public Health Laboratory information management system.</p> <p>The number of cases tested for anti-HBs seroprevalence was 309 037 and the number of positive cases was 171 119 (55.38%), the number of cases tested for HBsAg seroprevalence was 321 600 and the number of positive cases was 7619 (2.38%).</p> <p>In a meta-analysis including 129 studies in our country, HBsAg seroprevalence was determined as 6.72% in Turkey and 4.57% in region C, where Gaziantep is located. In our study, it was determined as 2.38%. In narrow-scope and low-case studies on anti-HBs seroprevalence in various regions of Turkey, rates between 20.6% and 52.3% were found. In our study, Anti-HBs seroprevalence was found to be 55.38%.</p> <p>We believe that the data presented by our study on HBV epidemiology will be useful for chronic hepatitis treatment and health planning strategies both in Turkey and in the world.</p> Esin Doğantekin Akif Doğantekin Copyright (c) 2023 ICONTECH INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 7 2 28 38 10.5281/zenodo.8130747 Free Triyodothyronine - Free Thyroxine Ratio in Euthyroid Obesity Patients http://icontechjournal.com/index.php/iij/article/view/277 <p>Obesity is the condition of body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m² as a result of excessive increase in body fat mass. In recent years, obesity rates have more than doubled, and about a third of the world's population is now classified as overweight or obese. Obesity can affect thyroid hormones in addition to the role of thyroid hormones in regulating body weight. Therefore, by defining the relationship between obesity and thyroid hormones, the risk factors of many diseases can be controlled.</p> <p>The aim of this study is to investigate the fT₃-sT₄ ratio in obese patients without known thyroid disease and normal thyroid function tests.</p> <p>Cases examined retrospectively were divided into 2 groups as obese and control (non-obese) groups. In the obese group, 58 patients (34 women, 24 men) and 60 healthy subjects (39 women, 21 men), a total of 118 patients aged 18-64 years with biochemical data were included in the study.</p> <p>The thyroid function tests of the groups were compared. The fT₃ level was found to be 3.9 (3.84-3.99) pg/ml in the obese group, and 2.88 (2.74-2.98) pg/ml in the control group (p&lt;0.001). The fT₄ level was 0.92 (0.91-0.95) ng/dl in the obese group, and the fT₄ level was 1.52 (1.4-1.63) ng/dl in the control group, which was statistically significant (p&lt;0.001). TSH level was 3.79 (3.54-3.98) mIU/mL in the obese group and 1.78 (1.48-2.15) mIU/mL in the control group (p&lt;0.001). The fT₃/sT₄ ratio was 4.22 (4.03-4.35) in the obese group and 1.9 (1.76-2.1) in the control group (p&lt;0.001).</p> <p>Given that obesity is characterized by an increase in both muscle mass and sT₃ levels, it may well be that a higher muscle mass is responsible for higher type II iodothyronine deiodinase, thereby increasing fT₃ production and circulating hormone levels. Recent studies have found that serum sT₃ levels increase in obese patients. In euthyroid individuals, the fT₃ and fT₃-sT₄ ratios were positively correlated with BMI, waist circumference, and body fat percentage. In our study, sT₃ level and fT₃-sT₄ ratio were found to be higher in the obese group compared to the control group, in line with the literature.</p> <p>In our study, we found that the fT₃-sT₄ ratio is metabolically important and associated with obesity in cases without known thyroid disease and whose thyroid function tests are completely euthyroid.</p> Akif Doğantekin Ali Gürel Nevzat Gözel Copyright (c) 2023 ICONTECH INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 7 2 39 45 10.5281/zenodo.8130780 Computational Analysis of Flow Characteristics of Nozzles with Different Geometries http://icontechjournal.com/index.php/iij/article/view/285 <p>In this study, five different nozzles which can be used for spraying operations were generated and flow analyses of these nozzles were carried with the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics and Finite volume analysis software. Flow analyses were carried out for each nozzle geometry and the effect of the nozzle geometry on the velocity of fluid was investigated. It was determined that nozzle geometry influenced the velocity of the fluid. During the analysis processes, three different turbulence models (k-omega, k-epsilon and transition k-kl omega) were selected to investigate the effect of turbulence model on velocity of the fluid. Present analyses revealed that these turbulence model did not have any remarkable effects on the velocity of the fluid but influenced spray distribution area.</p> Mert Son Bünyamin Demir Copyright (c) 2023 ICONTECH INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 7 2 46 61 10.5281/zenodo.8130808 Investigation of Practices and Needs Identification Studies for the Family of Deaf Children http://icontechjournal.com/index.php/iij/article/view/290 <p>Hearing loss is seen as a sensory disorder that significantly affects the life of an individual. When individuals with hearing loss are diagnosed as early as infancy and the necessary interventions are applied, there is a possibility of experiencing language and communication problems in the later life of the individual. In this case, the family, which is the structure where the child receives his primary and basic education, is of great importance in terms of supporting and developing the child. For this reason, the need for families of hearing impaired children to be supported and informed in various areas is increasing. The aim of this study is to examine family education programs and needs determination studies for families of hearing impaired children on various topics. For the stated purpose, Google Academic, YÖK National Thesis Center, databases “hearing impaired children”, “families of hearing impaired children”, “family with hearing impaired children”, “mother with hearing impaired child”, “family with hearing impaired child” concepts from PubMed database “hard of hearing”, “deaf”, “children with hearing loss”, “family” concepts, 50 articles were reached by searching for the concepts of “hard of hearing” from the ProQuest database “children with hearing loss”, “children with hearing hardness”, “deaf child” and “family centered” from the networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (NDLTD) database. As a result of the studies reached, it has been concluded that studies for families of hearing impaired children have increased in the last 6 years, that the studies are often prepared for both parents or only mothers, and that the studies for fathers only are very limited. It may be recommended to carry out studies encouraging father participation in the studies for families of children with hearing impairment and to increase studies for fathers by considering the impact of fathers on child education after examining family roles from various social perspectives.</p> Şule Aksoy Miray Kabay Ebru Aydemir Hatice Zekavet Kabasakal Copyright (c) 2023 ICONTECH INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 7 2 62 85 10.5281/zenodo.8130825 Investigation of Iconic Architecture-Nature Relationship http://icontechjournal.com/index.php/iij/article/view/291 <p>Architects have mostly seen nature as a source of inspiration in the process from the past to the present. Nature has always been a source of inspiration for architectural design in terms of form, aesthetics, and harmony. The prominent approach in today’s design approach; is not to use nature directly as a figural source of inspiration, but to evaluate nature as a production process that deals with it as a whole. Advances in technology and natural sciences and information technologies in the 20th century enabled architecture to work integrated with physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics; The functioning of nature has begun to be used in architectural design, not only as a form but also as a structure and material. Today, iconic buildings with their different and innovative designs are often inspired by nature with the aim of being original and different. Because iconic buildings need a strong associative meaning in order to remain in the memory of the viewer, and at this point, living and non-living nature offer architects an unlimited source of inspiration for iconic design. In this study, the iconic building-nature relationship was discussed, nature-inspired iconic buildings designed at the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century were selected and these buildings were classified and analyzed according to their source of inspiration from nature. A detailed literature review was conducted for the selected structures; The identity of the buildings, the architectural design story, and the source of inspiration were investigated. In light of all this information, the findings obtained as a result of the architectural analysis of the selected contemporary icon structures and the analysis of their relationship with nature were evaluated, the future of these structures and their importance for the cities they belong to were discussed.</p> Zafer Kuyrukçu Copyright (c) 2023 ICONTECH INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 7 2 86 98 10.5281/zenodo.8130857